Here is a YouTube video in which Mark Ritson explains positioning using Apple as an example.
“Positioning is the intended brand image. It’s what I want you to think about when you think about my brand. In the case of Apple, I want you to think that Apple is fundamentally human, that it’s simple, and that it’s creative.”
“Positioning is not the same as slogans or straplines [taglines], but it can be a great source of them… Think Different… Say Hello to iPod.”
“Differentiation is possible through positioning… I don’t think you can own anything. I don’t think these things are unique. But in the permutation of the different words you choose, the combination of them together, and then the concerted execution, differentiation can be achieved.”